Leadership in Education

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

OLPC’s mission is to empower the world’s poorest children through education.

One Laptop per Child’s principles:
OLPC aims to provide each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop. To this end, OLPC has designed hardware, content and software for collaborative, joyful, and self-empowered learning. With access to this type of tool, children are engaged in their own education, and learn, share, and create together. They become connected to each other, to the world and to a brighter future.


As of 14 /2/2011 Gert Van Mol, founder of The Future Leadership Institute* will be advising OLPC Europe, One Laptop Per Child Europe, as a Non-Executive Director EU Policies. OLPC Europe is a public ultility foundation, part of OLPC, a project originally developed at MIT by Nicholas Negroponte.
(*Between 2007 and 2011 the Institute carried temporarily the name ‘The Wall Street Journal Future Leadership Institute’)

Here are the 5 principles of OLPC:
1. Child Ownership
OLPC has created the XO laptop to be low cost, robust and powerful, beautiful and friendly. It was designed for elementary school children, the first of its kind.
A laptop can be transformed into a mobile school: a portable learning and teaching environment. A connected laptop is more than a tool. It is a new human environment of a digital kind. An essential aspect of OLPC is the free use of the laptop at home, where the child and the family together can greatly increase the practice time normally available at a school lab or library.
The ownership of the XO is a basic right, coupled with new duties and responsibilities: including protecting, caring for, and sharing this creative environment.
2. Low Ages
The XO is designed for the use of children ages 6 to 12 — covering the years of elementary school — but nothing precludes its use earlier or later in life. Children do not need to know how to write or read to enjoy and learn with an XO. Playing is the basis of human learning, and the digital activities on an XO help with acquisition of reading and writing.
Every year a new class of students will be incorporated into the program. The assessment of the OLPC program should be intrinsic to each class, and every student will have an individual portfolio or journal with the history of his or her learning paths in the many disciplines at school. Small children with learning, motor or sensory disabilities may use the computer as a prosthesis to read, write, calculate, and communicate.
3. Saturation
OLPC is committed to elementary education in developing countries. To attain this objective we aim to reach “digital saturation” in a given population. The key point is to choose the best scale in each circumstance. It can be a country, a region, a municipality or a village, in which every child and teacher will own a connected laptop.
As with vaccinations, digital saturation implies a commitment to maintaining these tools as part of primary education over time. With it, the whole community becomes responsible for this focus on shared education, and the children receive support from the many institutions, individuals and groups around them. Universal connectivity helps these different communities grow together and expand in many directions, in both time and space. Over time, the education network becomes solid and robust, without a digital divide.
4. Connection
The XO has been designed to provide an engaging wireless network. The laptops are connected to others nearby automatically. Children in the neighborhood are permanently connected to chat, sharing information on the local network or web, making music together, editing texts, or using collaborative games.
The laptop can be charged by solar or mechanical power, or through special bulk-chargers at school. The unique XO display allows the use of the laptop under a bright sun. All of this makes it easy for children in a community to connect to one another almost anywhere.
This connectivity will be as ubiquitous as a formal or informal learning environment permits. We propose a new kind of school, an “expanded school” which grows beyond the walls of the classroom. Last but not least, this connectivity ensures a dialogue among generations, nations and cultures. The OLPC network will speak every language.
5. Free and Open Source
All children are learners and teachers, and this spirit of collaboration is amplified by free and open source tools.
A child with an XO is not a passive consumer of knowledge, but an active participant in a learning community. As children grow and pursue new ideas, their software, content, resources, and tools should be able to grow with them. The global nature of OLPC requires locally-driven growth, driven in part by the children themselves. Each child with an XO can leverage the learning of other children. They can teach each other, share ideas, and support each other’s growth.
There is no inherent external dependency in being able to localize software into their language, fix the software to remove bugs, and repurpose the software to fit their needs. Nor is there any restriction in regard to redistribution; OLPC cannot know and should not control how the tools we create will be re-purposed in the future.
OLPC’s goals require a world of great software and content, both open and proprietary. Children need the chance to choose from all of it. In the context of learning, knowledge should be free. Further, every child has something to contribute; we need a free and open framework that supports the human need to express and share.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is a project supported by the Miami-based One Laptop per Child Association (OLPCA) and the Cambridge-based OLPC Foundation (OLPCF), two U.S. non-profit organizations set up to oversee the creation of affordable educational devices for use in the developing world. The project was originally funded by member organizations such as AMD, Chi Mei, eBay, Google, Marvell Technology Group, News Corporation, Nortel, Red Hat, and Quanta.

In the first years of the project, the Association managed development and logistics, and the Foundation managed fundraising such as the Give One Get One campaign (“G1G1”). In 2010 the Association set up a new office in Miami under Rodrigo Halaby, and currently oversees deployment and support for the XO-1.5 laptop and its successors, and country partnerships. The foundation, led by Chairman Nicholas Negroponte,[1] currently oversees development of future software and hardware, including the ARM-based OLPC XO-1.75 laptop and the OLPC XO-3 tablet.

FAQ on official site of OLPC[2] informs that as of 2011 there were about over 2.4 million XO laptops delivered.[3]

OLPC Massive Deployment Nicaragua

OLPC Massive Deployment Nicaragua

At the 2006 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) announced it would back the laptop. UNDP released a statement saying they would work with OLPC to deliver “technology and resources to targeted schools in the least developed countries”.[4]

The project originally aimed for a price of 100 US dollars. In May 2006, Negroponte told the Red Hat’s annual user summit: “It is a floating price. We are a nonprofit organization. We have a target of $100 by 2008, but probably it will be $135, maybe $140.”[5] A BBC news article in April 2010 indicated the price still remains above $200.[6]

Mass production
Intel was a member of the association for a brief period in 2007. It resigned its membership on 3 January 2008, citing disagreements with requests from OLPC’s founder, Nicholas Negroponte, for Intel to stop dumping their Classmate PCs.[7][8]

Ivan Krstić (former OLPC Director of Security Architecture) resigned in late February 2008 because, he said, learning was not what the OLPC was about even for Negroponte.[9][10] On April 22, 2008, Walter Bender, who was the former President of Software and Content for the OLPC project, stepped down from his post and left OLPC to found Sugar Labs. Bender reportedly had a disagreement with Negroponte about the future of the OLPC and their future partnerships.[9] Negroponte also showed some doubt about the exclusive use of open source software for the project[11] and made suggestions supporting a move towards adding Windows XP which Microsoft was in the process of porting over to the XO hardware.[12] Microsoft’s Windows XP, however, is not seen by some as a sustainable operating system.[13] Microsoft announced on May 16, 2008, that they have let them have Windows XP for $3 per computer.[14] It would be offered as an option on XO-1 laptops and possibly be able to dual boot alongside Linux.[15] However, no significant deployments elected to purchase Windows licenses.

Charles Kane became the new President and Chief Operating Officer of the OLPC Association on May 2, 2008.[16][17] In late 2008, the NYC Department of Education began a project to purchase large numbers of XO computers for use by New York schoolchildren.[18]

Advertisements for OLPC began streaming on the video streaming website Hulu and others in 2008. One such ad has John Lennon advertising for OLPC, with an unknown voice actor redubbing over Lennon’s voice.[19]

The 2008 economic downturn and increased netbook competition reduced OLPC’s annual budget from $12 million to $5 million and a major restructuring resulted effective January 7, 2009. Development of the Sugar operating environment was moved entirely into the community, the Latin America support organization was spun out and staff reductions, including Jim Gettys, affected approximately 50% of the paid employees. The remaining 32 staff members also saw salary reductions.[20][21]

Despite the downsizing, OLPC continued development of the XO-1.5 laptops. Funding from Marvell, finalized in May 2010, revitalized the foundation and enabled the 1Q 2012 completion of the ARM-based XO-1.75 laptops and initial prototypes of the XO-3 tablets. OLPC is now taking orders for mass production of the XO-1.75, and has shipped over 2.5 million XO-1 and XO-1.5 laptops.

The XO-1, previously known as the “$100 Laptop” or “Children’s Machine”, is an inexpensive laptop computer designed to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world,[22] to provide them with access to knowledge, and opportunities to “explore, experiment and express themselves” (constructionist learning).[23] The laptop is manufactured by the Taiwanese computer company Quanta Computer.

The rugged, low-power computers use flash memory instead of a hard drive, run a Fedora-based operating system and use the Sugar user interface.[24] Mobile ad hoc networking based on the 802.11s wireless mesh network protocol allows students to collaborate on activities and to share Internet access from one connection. The wireless networking has much greater range than typical consumer laptops. The XO-1 has also been designed to be lower cost and much longer-lived than typical laptops.

The laptops include an anti-theft system which can, optionally, require each laptop to periodically make contact with a server to renew its cryptographic lease token. If the cryptographic lease expires before the server is contacted, the laptop will be locked until a new token is provided. The contact may be to a country-specific server over a network or to a local, school-level server that has been manually loaded with cryptographic “lease” tokens that enable a laptop to run for days or even months between contacts. Cryptographic lease tokens can be supplied on a USB flash drive for non-networked schools.[25] The mass production laptops are also tivoized, disallowing installation of additional software or replacement of the operating system. Users interested in development need to obtain the unlocking key separately (most developer laptops for Western users already come unlocked). It is claimed that locking prevents unintentional bricking and is part of the anti-theft system.[26]

Microsoft developed a modified version of Windows XP and announced in May 2008 that Windows XP will be available for an additional cost of 10 dollars per laptop.[27]

In 2009, OLPC announced an updated XO (dubbed XO-1.5) that takes advantage of the latest component technologies. The XO-1.5 includes a new VIA C7-M processor and a new chipset providing a 3D graphics engine and an HD video decoder. It has 1GB of RAM and built-in storage of 4 GB, with an option for 8 GB. The XO-1.5 uses the same display, and a network wireless interface with half the power dissipation.[28] Early prototype versions of the hardware were available in June 2009, and they are available for software development and testing available for free through a developer’s program.[29]

An XO-1.75 model is being developed that will use a Marvell ARM processor, targeting a price below $150 and date in 2011.[30]

The XO-2 two sheet design concept was canceled in favor of the one sheet XO-3. An XO-3 concept resembled a tablet computer and was planned to have the inner workings of the XO 1.75.[31] Price goal is below $100 and date is 2012.[32]

As of May 2010, OLPC was working with Marvell on other unspecified future tablet designs.[33] In October 2010, both OLPC and Marvell signed an agreement granting OLPC $5.6 million to fund development of its XO-3 next generation tablet computer. The tablet should use an ARM chip from Marvell.[34][35]

At CES 2012, OLPC showcased the XO-3 model, which featured a touchscreen and a modified form of Sugar OS.[36] In early December 2012, however, it was announced that the XO-3 would not be seeing actual production, and focus had shifted to the XO-4.[37]

The XO-4 was launched at International CES 2013 in Las Vegas[38] .

Distribution model
The laptops are sold to governments,[39] to be distributed through the ministries of education with the goal of distributing “one laptop per child”. The laptops are given to students, similar to school uniforms and ultimately remain the property of the child. The operating system and software is localized to the languages of the participating countries.

Early deployments
Approximately 500 developer boards (Alpha-1) were distributed in mid-2006; 875 working prototypes (Beta 1) were delivered in late 2006; 2400 Beta-2 machines were distributed at the end of February 2007;[40] full-scale production started November 6, 2007.[41] Around one million units were manufactured in 2008.

Give 1 Get 1 program
OLPC initially stated that no consumer version of the XO laptop was planned.[42] The project, however, later established the laptopgiving.org website to accept direct donations and ran a “Give 1 Get 1” (G1G1) offer starting on November 12, 2007. The offer was initially scheduled to run for only two weeks, but was extended until December 31, 2007 to meet demand. With a donation of $399 (plus US$25 shipping cost) to the OLPC “Give 1 Get 1” program, donors received an XO-1 laptop of their own and OLPC sent another on their behalf to a child in a developing country. Shipments of “Get 1” laptops sent to donors were restricted to addresses within the United States, its territories, and Canada.

Some 83,500 people participated in the program. Delivery of all of the G1G1 laptops was completed by April 19, 2008.[43] Delays were blamed on order fulfillment and shipment issues both within OLPC and with the outside contractors hired to manage those aspects of the G1G1 program.[44]

Give 1 Get 1 2008
Between November 17 and December 31, 2008, a second G1G1 program[45] was run through Amazon.com and Amazon.co.uk.[46] This partnership was chosen specifically to solve the distribution issues of the G1G1 2007 program. The price to consumers was the same as in 2007, at US$399.

The program aimed to be available worldwide. Laptops could be delivered in the USA, in Canada and in more than 30 European countries, as well as in some Central and South American countries (Colombia, Haiti, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay), African countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Madagascar, Rwanda) and Asian countries (Afghanistan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Nepal).[47] Despite this, the program sold only about 12,500 laptops and generated a mere $2.5 million – a 93 percent decline from the year before.[48]

Promotional efforts
OLPC no longer advertises direct to consumers, focusing instead on fundraising efforts. In 2011, they launched a new website designed by Pentagram[49] and Upstatement.[50]

Participating countries
In October 2007, Uruguay placed an order for 100,000 laptops, making Uruguay the first country to purchase a full order of laptops. The first real, non-pilot deployment of the OLPC technology happened in Uruguay in December 2007.[52] Since then, 200,000 more laptops have been ordered to cover all public school children between 6 and 12 years old.

President Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay presented the final laptop at a school in Montevideo on 13 October 2009.[64] Over the last two years 362,000 pupils and 18,000 teachers have been involved, and has cost the state $260 (£159) per child, including maintenance costs, equipment repairs, training for the teachers and internet connection.[64] The annual cost of maintaining the programme, including an information portal for pupils and teachers, will be US$21 (£13) per child.[64]

The country reportedly became the first in the world where every primary school child received a free laptop on 13 October 2009 as part of the Plan Ceibal (Education Connect).[64][65] However, the South Pacific island nation of Niue also claimed this in August 2008.[66]

Laptops have been delivered to the following countries, either following an order or as part of the Give One Get One program:

Africa and Middle East
Ethiopia (5,000 laptops received from G1G1 program)
Gaza (2,100 laptops received)
Ghana (10,000 laptops ordered)
Rwanda (20,000 laptops received from G1G1 program, 100,000 laptops ordered)[67]
Sierra Leone (5,000 laptops ordered)

North America
Canada (5,000 laptops ordered for First Nations communities)
Mexico (50,000 laptops ordered by businessman Carlos Slim)
United States of America (15,000 laptops for Birmingham, Alabama; 1,500 for Chester, Pennsylvania)[68][69][70]

Caribbean and Latin America
Argentina (60,000 laptops ordered)
Colombia (20,000 laptops ordered)
Haiti (13,000 laptops received from G1G1 program)
Peru (870,000 laptops ordered, most recently in December 2010)[71]
Uruguay (380,000+ given to 1-6 students and teachers, completing the initial objective.[72][73] 90,000 ordered in 2010 for high-school students).[73]

Afghanistan (11,000 laptops received from G1G1 program)
Cambodia (3,200 laptops received from G1G1 program)
India (5,000 laptops including for the Government of Manipur)
Mongolia (10,000 laptops received from G1G1 program)[74]
Kiribati, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu (5,000 laptops received from G1G1 program)[75]
Australia (5,000 laptops ordered by the independent non-profit OLPC Australia)[76]

OLPC in the United States
Originally, OLPC announced the United States would not be part of the first-year effort. In 2008, Nicholas Negroponte said “OLPC America already has a director and a chairman and will likely be based in Washington, D.C.,”[77] however such an organization was not set up. As of 2010, Birmingham, Alabama is the largest deployment in the US. Some said the changing economic landscape forced OLPC to adjust their distribution strategy. Negroponte cited patriotism, “building critical mass”, and providing a means for children all over the world to communicate.

OLPC in Republic of Nagorno
On January 26, 2012, prime minister Ara Harutyunyan and entrepreneur Eduardo Eurnekian signed a memorandum of understanding launching an OLPC program in Karabagh. The program is geared towards elementary schools throughout Karabagh. Eurnekian hopes to decrease the gap by giving the war-zoned region an opportunity to engage in a more solid education. The New York based nonprofit, Armenian General Benevolent Union, is helping to undertake the responsibility by providing on-the-ground support. The government of Karabagh is enthusiastic and is working with OLPC to bring the program to full volition.[78]

The OLPC project has received criticism both specific to its mission and criticism that is typical of many such systems, such as support, ease-of-use, security, content-filtering and privacy issues. Officials in some countries have criticized the project for its appropriateness in terms of price, cultural emphasis and priority as compared to other basic needs of people in third-world settings.

At The World Summit on the Information Society held by the United Nations in Tunisia from November 16–18, 2005, several African representatives, most notably Marthe Dansokho (a missionary of United Methodist Church), voiced suspicions towards the motives of the OLPC project and claimed that the project was using an overly U.S. mindset that presented solutions not applicable to specifically African problems. Dansokho said the project demonstrated misplaced priorities, stating that African women would not have enough time to research new crops to grow. She added that clean water and schools were more important. Mohammed Diop specifically attacked the project as an attempt to exploit the governments of poor nations by making them pay for hundreds of millions of machines and the need of further investments into internet infrastructure.[79] Others have similarly criticized laptop deployments in very low income countries, regarding them as cost-ineffective when compared to far simpler measures such as deworming and other expenses on basic child health.[80]

Lee Felsenstein, a computer engineer who played a central role in the development of the personal computer, criticized the centralized, top-down design and distribution of the OLPC.[81]

John Wood, founder of Room to Read (a NPO which builds schools and libraries), emphasizes affordability and scalability over high-tech solutions. While in favor of the One Laptop per Child initiative for providing education to children in the developing world at a cheaper rate, he has pointed out that a $2,000 library can serve 400 children, costing just $5 a child to bring access to a wide range of books in the local languages (such as Khmer or Nepali) and English; also, a $10,000 school can serve 400–500 children ($20–$25 a child). According to Wood, these are more appropriate solutions for education in the dense forests of Vietnam or rural Cambodia.[82]

The Scandinavian aid organization FAIR proposed setting up computer labs with recycled second-hand computers as a cheaper initial investment. Dr. Negroponte argued against this proposition, stating the expensive running cost of conventional laptops.[83] Computer Aid International doubted the OLPC sales strategy would succeed, citing the “untested” nature of its technology. CAI refurbishes computers and printers and sells them to developing countries for £42 a piece (compare it to £50 a piece for the OLPC laptops).[84]

The OLPC project has also been criticized for allegedly adopting a “one-shot” deployment approach with little or no technical support or teacher training, and for neglecting pilot programs and formal assessment of outcomes in favor of quick deployment. Some authors attribute this unconventional approach to the OLPC promoters’ alleged focus on constructivist education and ‘digital utopianism’.[80]

Mark Warschauer, a Professor of University of California at Irvine and Morgan Ames, at the time of writing, a PhD candidate at Stanford University, have pointed out that the laptop by itself does not completely fill the need of students in underprivileged countries. The “children’s machines”, as they have been called, have been deployed to several countries, for example Uruguay, Peru, and in the USA, Alabama, but after a relatively short time, their usage has declined considerably, sometimes because of hardware problems or breakage, in some cases, as high as 27% to 59% within the first two years, and sometimes due to a lack of knowledge on the part of the users on how to take full advantage of the machine. However, another factor has recently been acknowledged; a lack of a direct relation to the pedagogy needed in the local context to be truly effective. Uruguay reports that only 21.5% of teachers use the laptop in the classroom on a daily basis, and 25% report using it less than once a week. In Alabama, 80.3% of students say they never or seldom use the computer for class work, and Peru, teachers report that in the first few months, 68.9% use the laptop three times per week, but after two months, only 40% report such usage. Those of a low socio-economic level tend to not be able to effectively use the laptop for educational purposes on their own, but with scaffolding and mentoring from teachers, the machine can become more useful. According to one of the returning OLPC executives, Walter Bender, the approach needs to be more holistic, combining technology with a prolonged community effort, teacher training and local educational efforts and insights.[85]

As of April 2011, the price remains above $209.[86] More than 40% of the world population lives on less than US$ 2 per day and around 20% live on less than US$ 1 per day (or less than US$ 365 per year).[87] The latter income segment would have to spend more than half of its annual income on the laptop (200/365 = 55%) while the global average of ICT spending is 3% of income.[88] Based upon these assumptions, the realization of the vision of “one laptop per child” may require a laptop for 3% * $365 = US$10. Empirical studies show that the borderline between ICT as a necessity good and ICT as a luxury good is roughly around the “magical number” of US$10 per person per month, or US$120 per year,[88] which means that people consider ICT expenditure of US$120 per year as a basic necessity.

Open source vs. dual-boot systems
OLPC’s dedication to “Free and open source” was questioned with their May 15, 2008, announcement that large-scale purchasers would be offered the choice to add an extra cost, special version of the proprietary Windows XP OS developed by Microsoft alongside the regular, free and open Linux-based operating system with the “Sugar” GUI. James Utzschneider, from Microsoft, said that initially only one operating system could be chosen.[89][90] OLPC, however, said that future OLPC work would enable XO-1 laptops to dual boot either the free and open Linux/Sugar OS or the proprietary Microsoft Windows XP. Negroponte further said that “OLPC will sell Linux-only and dual-boot, and will not sell Windows-only [XO-1 laptops]”. OLPC released the first test firmware enabling XO-1 dual-boot on July 3, 2008.[89][91][92][93][94]

This option did not prove popular. As of 2011, a few pilots had received a few thousand total dual-boot machines, and the new ARM-based machines do not support Windows XP. No significant deployment purchased Windows licenses.[95]

Negroponte and Charles Kane made statements explaining OLPC’s decision to enable XO-1 laptops to dual-boot either open source Fedora or proprietary Microsoft Windows XP:

Nicholas Negroponte says that within OLPC, the open-source scrap had become a distraction. “I think that means and ends, as often happens, got confused,” he says. “The mission is learning and children. The means of achieving that were, amongst others, open source and constructionism. In the process of doing that, open source in particular became an end in itself, and we made decisions along the way to remain very pure in open source that were not in the long-term interest of the project.”—Nicholas Negroponte, May 2, 2008, [96]

“The OLPC mission is a great endeavor, but the mission is to get the technology in the hands of as many children as possible,” [Charles Kane] said. “Whether that technology is from one operating system or another, one piece of hardware or another, or supplied or supported by one consulting company or another doesn’t matter.” “It’s about getting it into kids’ hands,” he continued. “Anything that is contrary to that objective, and limits that objective, is against what the program stands for.”—Charles Kane, OLPC President and COO, May 2, 2008, [96]

Teacher training and ongoing support
The organization has been accused of simply giving underprivileged children laptops and “walking away”. Some critics claim this “drive-by” implementation model was the official strategy of the project. While the organisation has learning teams dedicated to support and working with teachers, Negroponte has said in response to this criticism that “You actually can” give children a connected laptop and walk away, noting experiences with self-guided learning.[97]

A former intern in Peru criticized OLPC’s approach because “laptops are getting opened and turned on, but then kids and teachers are getting frustrated by hardware and software bugs, don’t understand what to do, and promptly box them up to put back in the corner.”[98]

Hardware and software bugs
The organization has been criticized for its lack of troubleshooting support. Teachers in Peru are told to handle problems in one of two ways. If the problem is a software issue, they are to flash the computer, and if it is a hardware problem, they are to report it. In the classroom environment this black-boxing approach is being criticized for causing the teachers and students to feel disconnected with, and confused by the laptop, which results, in many cases, in the laptops eventually going unused.[99] Several defects in OLPC XO-1 hardware have emerged in the field, and laptop repair is often neglected by students or their families (who are responsible for maintenance) due to the relatively high cost of some components (such as displays).[80]

On the software side, the Bitfrost security system has been known to deactivate improperly, rendering the laptop unusable until it is unlocked by support technicians with the proper keys. (This is a time-consuming process, and the problem often affects large numbers of laptops at the same time). The Sugar interface has been difficult for teachers to learn, and the mesh networking feature in the OLPC XO-1 was buggy and went mostly unused in the field.[80]

The OLPC XO-1 hardware lacks connectivity to external monitors or projectors, and teachers are not provided with software for remote assessment. As a result, students are unable to present their work to the whole class, and teachers must also assess students’ work from the individual laptops. Teachers often find it difficult to use the keyboard and screen, which were designed with student use in mind.[80]

Environmental issues
In 2005 and prior to the final design of the XO-1 hardware, OLPC received criticism because of concerns over the environmental and health impacts of hazardous materials found in most computers.[100] The OLPC asserted that it aimed to use as many environmentally friendly materials as it could; that the laptop and all OLPC-supplied accessories would be fully compliant with the EU’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS); and that the laptop would use an order of magnitude less power than the typical consumer netbooks available as of 2007 thus minimizing the environmental burden of power generation.[101]

The XO-1 delivered (starting in 2007) uses environmental friendly materials, complies with the EU’s RoHS and uses between 0.25 and 6.5 watts[102] in operation. According to the Green Electronics Council’s Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool, whose sole purpose is assessing and measuring the impact laptops have on the environment, the XO is not only non-toxic and fully recyclable, but it lasts longer, costs less, and is more energy efficient. The XO-1 is the first laptop to have been awarded an EPEAT Gold level rating.[103][104]

Other discussions question whether OLPC laptops should be designed to promote anonymity or to facilitate government tracking of stolen laptops. A June 2008 New Scientist article critiqued Bitfrost’s P_THEFT security option, which allows each laptop to be configured to transmit an individualized, non-repudiable digital signature to a central server at most once each day to remain functioning.[105]

Lagos Analysis Corp., also called Lancor, a Lagos, US-based Nigerian-owned company, sued OLPC in the end of 2007 for $20 million, claiming that the computer’s keyboard design was stolen from a Lancor patented device.[106] OLPC responded by claiming that they had not sold any multi-lingual keyboards in the design claimed by Lancor,[107] and that Lancor had misrepresented and concealed material facts before the court.[108] In January 2008, the Nigerian Federal Court rejected OLPC motion to dismiss LANCOR’s lawsuit and extended its injunction against OLPC distributing its XO Laptops in Nigeria. OLPC appealed the Court’s decision, the Appeal is still pending in the Nigerian Federal Court of Appeals. In March 2008, OLPC filed a lawsuit in Massachusetts to stop LANCOR from suing it in the United States.[109] In October 2008, MIT News magazine erroneously reported that the Middlesex Superior Court granted OLPC’s motions to dismiss all of LANCOR’s claims against OLPC, Nicholas Negroponte, and Quanta.[110] On October 22, 2010 OLPC voluntarily moved the Massachusetts Court to dismiss its own lawsuit against LANCOR.

In 2007, XO laptops in Nigeria were reported to contain pornographic material belonging to children participating in the OLPC Program.[111] In response, OLPC Nigeria announced they would start equipping the machines with filters.[111][112]

India’s Ministry of Human Resource Development, in June 2006, rejected the initiative, saying “it would be impossible to justify an expenditure of this scale on a debatable scheme when public funds continue to be in inadequate supply for well-established needs listed in different policy documents”.[113][114] Later they stated plans to make laptops at $10 each for schoolchildren. Two designs submitted to the Ministry from a final year engineering student of Vellore Institute of Technology and a researcher from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in May 2007 reportedly describe a laptop that could be produced for “$47 per laptop” for even small volumes.[115] The Ministry announced in July 2008 that the cost of their proposed “$10 laptop” would in fact be $100 by the time the laptop became available.[116] In 2010, a related $35 Sakshat Tablet was unveiled in India, released the next year as the “Aakash”.[117][118] In 2011, each Aakash sold for approximately $44 by an Indian company, DataWind. DataWind plans to launch similar projects in Brazil, Egypt, Panama, Thailand and Turkey.[119] OLPC later expressed support for the initiative.[120]

In 2009, a number of states announced plans to order OLPCs. However, as of 2010, only the state of Manipur had deployed 1000 laptops against an order of 70,000 because OLPC could not meet the conditions of dealing with the government such as offering bank guarantee against any advances, letters of credit in Indian Rupees rather than USD etc. Meanwhile, OLPC India Founder Satish Jha persuaded several state governments to adopt the one laptop per child policy that eventually benefited several other laptop producers such as HP, Lenovo, Dell, and Asus among them as OLPC did not have the financial muscle to deal with the demands of dealing with the state governments in India.


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  7.  Stecklow, Steve (2008-01-04). “Intel Resigns From Board Of One Laptop Per Child”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  8.  Tom Krazit, CNET News.com(2008-01-04). “Intel leaves OLPC after Classmate sale embargo”. ZDNet Australia. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  9. Jump up to:a b “Top OLPC Executive Resigns After Restructuring”. PC World. 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  10.  Ivan Krstić (2008-05-13). “ivan krstić · code culture » Sic Transit Gloria Laptopi”. Ivan Krstić’s code culture blog.
  11.  Eric Li. “Report: OLPC may eventually switch from Linux to Windows XP”IDG. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  12.  Edward Cherlin (2008-04-23). “Wow, Nicholas Negroponte is Further Gone Than I Thought”OLPCNews. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
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  17.  Wayan Vota. “OLPC’s New President & Negroponte: Its a Laptop Project Now”. OLPCNews. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  18.  NYsun.com
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  20.  Bray, Hiawatha (2009-01-09). “Fund loss staggers group giving laptops to poor children”. Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
  21.  Negroponte, Nicholas (2009-01-17).“January 2009 restructuring”. OLPC. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
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  24.  “OLPC’s Software”The OLPC Wiki. One Laptop per Child. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
  25.  Krstić, Ivan (February 7, 2007). The Bitfrost security platform (Draft-19 – release 1 ed.). One Laptop per Child. Line 968.
  26.  OLPC key explaining tivoization
  27.  Fildes, Jonathan (15 May 2008).“‘$100 laptop’ embraces Windows XP”Microsoft has joined forces with the developers of the “$100 laptop” to make Windows available on the machines. (BBC News). Retrieved 2008-05-15.
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  31.  Blog.laptop.org
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  33.  Gizmag.com
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  37.  The OLPC XO-3 Tablet Officially Joins the Zero Laptop Per Child Program. The Digital Reader (2012-12-01). Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  38.  Santos, Alexis. (2012-08-15) OLPC XO-4 debuts at CES, launch details coming this week (hands-on). Engadget.com. Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  39.  “Official OLPC FAQ – OLPC”. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  40.  For $150, Third-World Laptop Stirs Big DebateThe New York Times, 30 November 2006.
  41.  Jan Melin (November 7, 2007). 100-dollarsdatorn masstillverkas. NYTeknik. Retrieved on December 24, 2007.
  42.  “One Laptop per Child has no plans to commercialize XO Computer”. Business Wire. Retrieved 2007-01-16.
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  44.  “OLPC News (2008-01-19)”. One Laptop Per Child. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  45.  Amazon.com
  46.  Nystedt, Dan (2008-11-17). “Amazon launches OLPC ‘Give 1 Get 1’ laptop drive”IDG. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
  47.  “G1G1 International : the US, Canada, and 42+ other countries”. One Laptop per Child. 2008-11-23. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  48. Jump up to:a b Bray, Hiawatha (2009-01-09).“Fund loss staggers group giving laptops to poor children”The Boston Globe.
  49.  “New Work: One Laptop per Child | New at”. Pentagram. 2011-10-23. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  50.  Time:Winter 2010. “One Laptop per Child”. Upstatement. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
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  53.  OLPC Wiki, Country News, consulted on January 23, 2008
  54.  “Birmingham to buy 15K laptops from OLPC – Mass High Tech: The Journal of New England Technology”. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  55. Jump up to:a b Markoff, John (2008-01-05). “Intel Quits Effort to Get Computers to Children – New York Times”The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  56.  “Peru, Mexico billionaire agree to buy $188 laptops” Betanews, December 3, 2007
  57.  “Ceibal Project Progress: Meshing Children with Sugar – One Laptop Per Child News”. Olpcnews.com. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  58.  Peruvian president talks OLPC
  59.  “[Community-news] OLPC News (2008-11-10)”. Lists.laptop.org. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  60.  120,000 XO Laptops Headed to OLPC Rwanda
  61.  Latin America Leads in School, Miami Herald
  62.  Argentina’s La Rioja province receives the first 1,000 of 60,000 XOs ordered, BN Americas
  63.  Larepublica.pe
  64. Jump up to:a b c d Verónica Psetizki. (2009-10-16) “Laptop for every pupil in Uruguay”BBC
  65.  Hayley Jarvis (2009-10-16). “Laptop for each pupil in Uruguay”SOS Children’s Villages. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
  66.  “One laptop for every Niuean child”. BBC. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
  67.  Linux Today Notes From a Senior Editor: A Close Look at the OLPC
  68.  Wiki.laptop.org
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  70.  Video on YouTube
  71.  Miamiherald.com
  72.  Uruguay logra la meta de una laptop para cada escolar, SciDev
  73. Jump up to:a b “‘$100 Laptop’ Targets Older Class”BBC News. 2010-06-14.
  74.  OLPC Wiki, Laptop News 2008-01-19, “3. Ulaan Baatar”
  75.  “Microsoft Word – OLCP Oceania — Concept Note — Sep08” (PDF). 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  76.  Map of deployed XOs in Australia
  77.  PC World, January 2008
  78.  The Armenian Weekly, February 2011
  79.  “The $100 laptop — is it a wind-up?” CNN, December 1, 2005. Retrieved December 1, 2005.
  80. Jump up to:a b c d e Warschauer, Mark; Ames, Morgan (Fall–Winter 2010). “Can One Laptop Per Child Save the World’s Poor?”. Journal of International Affairs64 (1).
  81.  Problems with the $100 laptop by Lee Felsenstein
  82.  Software 2006 conference, Scaling Organizations Panel (32:40)
  83.  War of words between aid organization and OLPC erupts. 24 January 2007
  84.  $100 laptop project is ‘fundamentally flawed’ 20 June 2006
  85. http://www.gse.uci.edu/person/warschauer_m/docs/Warschauer_bluelines.pdf
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  87.  Poverty Home. Worldbank.org (2013-12-05). Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  88. Jump up to:a b Martin Hilbert “When is Cheap, Cheap Enough to Bridge the Digital Divide? Modeling Income Related Structural Challenges of Technology Diffusion in Latin America”World Development, Volume 38, issue 5, p. 756-770; free access to the study here: martinhilbert.net/CheapEnoughWD_Hilbert_pre-print.pdf
  89. Jump up to:a b James Utzschneider, General Manager of Marketing and Communications for the Unlimited Potential group at Microsoft (2008-05-15). “Look! Windows on the OLPC XO!”. Retrieved 2008-07-04. “This is the initial implementation customers will be able purchase when the product RTMs and will be a “Windows only” XO… Longer term, the OLPC [Association] plans to write a new BIOS and increase the amount of flash storage on the XO to support a “Dual Boot” option that would enable children to use either Linux or Windows on the same machine. This is fine with us as long there continues to be an excellent Windows experience on the XO.””
  90.  Ina Fried (2008-05-15). “Microsoft, OLPC officially team up”. Retrieved 2008-12-07. “Microsoft, meanwhile, said the first XO laptops with Windows that start rolling out in June will not be dual-boot machines.”
  91.  “AnnounceFAQ – OLPC”OLPC. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-07-05. “”Nicholas says that OLPC will sell Linux-only and dual-boot, and will not sell Windows-only.–Mokurai 04:21, 16 May 2008 (EDT) The only firmware technology that Microsoft had (/has today) was a proprietary Insyde BIOS that didn’t work with OLPC’s Linux kernel, so that’s what they talked about. But OLPC has createdOLPC:OLPC Firmware q2e10 new technology that supports both Windows and Linux. (Also, Linux kernels in general do support running under proprietary BIOSes. The difference in the XO’s Linux kernel is that it relies on the firmware for the XO’s special power management and anti-theft system.) –Gnu 13:23, 19 May 2008 (EDT)”
  92.  “Microsoft and One Laptop per Child Partner to Deliver Affordable Computing to Students Worldwide”. Microsoft. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-07-04. “This is the initial implementation customers will be able purchase when the product RTMs and will be a “Windows only” XO”
  93.  “OLPC Firmware q2e10”. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-07-07. “This firmware is the first test candidate for the new OFW2 series which supports dual-boot of Linux and WindowsXP.”
  94.  Paul McDougall (2008-05-16). “OLPC Adds Windows XP To XO Laptop”. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
  95.  OLPC blog, September 1, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
  96. Jump up to:a b David Talbot (2008-05-02).“$100 Laptop Program’s New President”Technology Review(Cambridge, Massachusetts,: MIT). pp. 1, 2. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  97.  Nikhil Swaminathan (2010-08-09).“Go Ahead, Give a Kid a Laptop and Walk Away”. GOOD Education. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
    “New Negropontism: You Can Give Kids XO Laptops and Just Walk Away”. Wayan Vota. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  98.  “Who’s to Blame”. Jeff Patzer. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  99.  “Who’s to Blame”. Jeff Patzer. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  100.  How Much E-Waste Per Child?,WorldChanging, December 19, 2005
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  102.  XO power drawOLPC Wiki, Retrieved November 3, 2008
  103.  OLPC:Environmental Impact
  104.  “IEEE 1680-2006 EPEAT Criteria Detail for OLPC”. EPEAT. 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2009-02-14.
  105.  Colin Barras (2008-06-05). “Laptops could betray users in the developing world”.
  106.  “Lawsuit over keyboard design.”
  107.  “Discussion of the Lancor lawsuit at groklaw.net”
  108.  “Discussion of the OLPCs first legal response to the Lancor lawsuit at groklaw.net”
  109.  “Nigerian patent suit still dogs OLPC “
  110.  “OLPC Patent Infringement Suit Dismissed by Middlesex Judge”
  111. Jump up to:a b “News | Africa – Reuters.com”. Africa.reuters.com. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
  112.  “LinuxInsider on OLPC”
  113.  Mukul, Akshaya (July 3, 2006). “HRD rubbishes MIT’s laptop scheme for kids”. The Times of India.
  114.  Kraemer, Kenneth L., Parkul Sharma, and Jason Dedrick. “One Laptop Per Child: Vision vs. Reality.” Communications of the ACM 52.6 (2009): 73-73. Web.
  115.  Akshaya Mukul (2007-05-07). “HRD hopes to make $10 laptops a reality”. The Times of India. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
  116.  Presented by CDW (July 29, 2008).“India’s ‘$10 Laptop’ to Cost US$100 After All – Business Center – PC World”. Pcworld.com. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  117.  $35 tablet from India looks to be worth every paisa (video) – Tim Stevens – Engadget
  118.  India unveils prototype for $35 touch-screen computer BBC World news-South Asia Retrieved 25 July 2010
  119.  Rawsthorn, Alice (2011-12-18), “A Few Stumbles on the Road to Connectivity”The New York Times
  120.  OLPC’s Negroponte offers to help India realize $35 tablet

Txt Wikipedia

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